X Force 2012 For Autocad
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The Uncanny X-Force series ended at issue #35 in 2012 and was once again relaunched as Uncanny X-Force vol. 2 as part of Marvel NOW!, with a new team led by Storm and Psylocke, written by Sam Humphries. A concurrent X-Force book written by Dennis Hopeless, Cable and X-Force, was released at the same time, bringing Cable back into the X-Force fold. The two series ended in 2014 after a crossover between the two titled "Vendetta". A new X-Force (vol. 4), was launched featuring a black ops squad composed of Cable, Psylocke, Fantomex and Marrow, written by X-Men: Legacy writer Simon Spurrier.
X-Force was replaced in October 2010 with Uncanny X-Force by Rick Remender and Jerome Opeña. This new series introduces team members Psylocke, Fantomex, and Deadpool. According to Remender, "This is a group of characters that have had their souls stained by evil forces in the past, a common thread connecting them. They've already made the hard compromises in the past; they've all taken life."
It is revealed that Scalphunter, a former Marauder, contacted Cyclops about a break-in at an old lab of Mister Sinister's that held an altered version of the Legacy Virus. While in pursuit of the Vanisher, the team runs into Domino, who joins forces with them to recover the Legacy Virus. After cornering Vanisher and inducing an inoperable brain tumor (courtesy of Elixir) to ensure his cooperation, Vanisher reveals he lost the virus while escaping from a horde of Marauder clones that were awakened after the death of Sinister. X-Force returns to the lab and kill the cloned Marauders inside. Domino retrieves the virus, only to be confronted by The Right's shocktroopers, who have come to take the virus for themselves. X-23 is injected with the virus while doing battle, and runs toward a nearby molten vat to destroy herself (thus destroying the virus). Elixir catches Laura as she jumps, and uses his healing powers to purge her of the virus, declaring that his purpose in X-Force is to ensure no more of his friends will die. With Vanisher in tow, X-Force returns home.
Not Forgotten takes place directly after X-Force's return to the present. X-23 emerges from the timestream just in time to save Boom-Boom from being killed by the Leper Queen. Seconds after she kills the Leper Queen, both she and Boom-Boom are taken into custody by agents of H.A.M.M.E.R. At the United Nations, Hellion and Surge are rescued from the Sapien League by Wolverine, Archangel and Elixir. Boom-Boom is freed from H.A.M.M.E.R. custody by Warpath, while X-23 is returned to The Facility. She wakes up to find her left arm severed by Kimura, wielding a chain saw. Before she can cut off the right arm, Kimura is shot by Agent Morales. Agent Young is revealed to be a member of The Facility that infiltrated H.A.M.M.E.R. to acquire the intel that Morales had on X-23. When Young tries to recruit Morales into The Facility, she rejects his offer by beating him unconscious. In the present, X-23 and Morales make their way to a Facility lab that holds mass amounts of the chemical trigger that forces X-23 to kill. While inside the room, X-23 cuts the claws out of her severed arm and gives them to Morales for safekeeping. She lights a Molotov cocktail of sorts which sets the sprinkler system off. The Facility soldiers finish cutting through to Laura just as Kimura realizes the sprinklers are spraying the Trigger Scent everywhere. X-23 goes feral and kills all the soldiers in her way. She gets to the Facility head's office just as the sprinklers start spraying water, washing away the scent. Kimura manages to club Laura from behind and then kills the Facility head, planning on framing Laura for it. Agent Morales arrives and sets Kimura on fire to distract her while she and Laura make her escape. Morales reveals she rigged the place to explode and they get out in time. The rest of X-Force arrives and takes Laura and her severed claws home, leading into the events of Necrosha.
The study measured the maximal occlusal forces (MOFs) and marginal bone levels (MBLs) around single implant-retained restorations over a period of 1 year and studied the correlation between them. Results showed that there was no change in MOFs at the end of 1 year and that the MBLs were stabilized by the end of 1 year. There was no statistically significant correlation between MOFs and MBLs.
Clinical success and longevity of dental implant-retained restorations can be achieved by biomechanically controlled occlusion. The occlusal forces affect the bone surrounding an implant-retained restoration. Mechanical stress can have both positive and negative consequences for bone tissue and thereby also for maintaining osseointegration of an oral implant-retained restoration.6
It is clinically difficult to quantify the magnitude and direction of naturally occurring occlusal forces. There are no clinical indices available to quantify these occlusal forces and their impact on prosthesis and oral implants, as they are available for plaque accumulation and peri-implant mucositis. This makes it very difficult to correlate the clinical signs and symptoms of occlusal overloading, radiographic signs of marginal bone loss, and implant failure.7 The occlusal forces may exceed the mechanical or biological load-bearing capacity of osseointegrated implants or prosthesis, causing either mechanical complications such as screw loosening or fracture, prosthesis or implant fracture, or failure of osseointegration, eventually leading to compromised implant longevity.6
It has been speculated that osseointegrated implants without periodontal receptors could be more susceptible to occlusal overloading and crestal bone loss because the load-sharing ability, adaptation to occlusal force, and mechanoperception are significantly reduced in dental implants.8
Studies have shown varying amount of occlusal forces and marginal bone levels around implant-retained restorations and natural tooth. Currently, the scientific evidence related to implant occlusion and the amount of occlusal forces is insufficient, and this is limited mainly to in vitro, animal, and retrospective studies. Very few studies have been done to study the correlation between occlusal forces and radiographic evidence of marginal bone loss and implant failure, and no study has been done on the Indian population. Also, the studies that have been conducted are difficult to decipher because of a wide variation in study designs.9,10
Thus, the present study was carried out (1) to measure the maximal occlusal forces (MOFs) in patients with implant-supported restorations, (2) to measure the marginal bone levels (MBLs) around these implant-supported restorations, and (3) to correlate the occlusal forces and MBLs around these implant-supported restorations.
The MOFs were measured by using a device (Digital IT strain gauge, H.E.M. Electronics, Miraj, India) that can bear a maximal occlusal load of 100 kg/mm2. The part of the strain gauge is a load cell that was placed into the oral cavity to record the forces. The forces were standardized by using a custom-made acrylic jig. A total of 3 values were recorded for MOFs with and without the use of the acrylic jig. This acrylic jig was fabricated to stabilize and reproduce the placement of the load cell in the oral cavity (Figure 1). The forces were recorded in the early morning, and patients were seated in alert feeding position to simulate the natural chewing position. These measurements of MOFs were carried out at the time of cementation of the final restoration, at 6 months, and at 12 months postrestoration.
When the MOFs were compared at the implant site and the contralateral site, with the use of jig and without the use of jig, at the time of cementation of the final restoration, at 6 months and at 12 months, a statistically significant difference (P < .05) was seen between them wherein higher forces were recorded with the use of jig (Table 1). However, comparison of MOFs at the implant site, with and without the use of jig and the MOFs at the contralateral site, with and without the use of jig, at different time intervals did not reveal any statistically significant differences (P > .05; Tables 2 through 4).
Comparison of maximal occlusal forces at the implant with the use of acrylic jig (IS1) and at the contralateral site with the use of acrylic jig (CS1) and maximal occlusal forces at the implant site without the use of acrylic jig (IS2) and at the contralateral site without the use of acrylic jig (CS2) at different time intervals*
The mean MOFs recorded at the implant site with the use of acrylic jig were 31.14 kg/mm2, and the mean MOFs recorded without the use of acrylic jig were 22.18 kg/mm2. The mean MOFs recorded at the contralateral healthy site with the use of acrylic jig were 25.71 kg/mm2, and the mean MOFs recorded without the use of acrylic jig were 17.53 kg/mm2. This is in contradiction to various studies reported in the literature.11 The occlusal forces depend on a number of factors that include gender, racial variations, diet, general build of the individual, musculature, dental arch size, vertical height of the load cell, and actual number of teeth involved in the bite effort.11
The inclusion criteria wherein the patients having only 1 single missing posterior tooth replaced with a dental implant and later restored along with split mouth design eliminated the errors related to the overload as well as being connected to natural teeth and also change in oral hygiene habits, change in oral intakes, and change in muscular activity, as done by Akca et al,8 Mericske-Stern et al,23 and Fontijn-Tekamp et al.24,25 It also provided a better understanding on the effect of normal occlusal forces on single implant-supported restorations.
The MOFs recorded give insight into the maximum amount of load that could have been put on the implants in normal function. The custom-made acrylic jig used in the current study standardized the placement of the load cell at all visits. It was observed that the amounts of forces recorded with the acrylic jig were considerably higher as compared to the forces recorded without the use of acrylic jig. This shows that the presence of any object between the occlusal surfaces of the opposing teeth leads to generation of higher masticatory forces by the muscles of mastication, which are eventually reflected in the readings recorded. The recording of occlusal forces without the use of acrylic jig was done to evaluate whether there was a difference with the use of acrylic jig, which was proven. 2b1af7f3a8