Mass Effect 2 Hair Modl
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Method: The sample consisted of 249 participants aged 8 to 87 years (M = 36.13, SD = 19.33). We collected data on child abuse and neglect using questionnaires, measured cortisol and cortisone concentrations in hair, and BMI. In a structural model, the effects of abuse and neglect on hair cortisol, hair cortisone, and BMI were tested, as well as the covariance between hair cortisol and BMI, and hair cortisone and BMI.
Toxic mold exposure is also connected to more serious, long-term effects like insomnia, memory loss, trouble concentrating and confusion. Mold exposure contributes to depression and anxiety. It can even lead to muscle cramps, numbness in extremities, weight gain, light sensitivity and hair loss.
A number of exercise training studies (e.g., 5-10 weeks) incorporating creatine supplementation have shown no increases in total body water (TBW). For example, resistance-trained males who received creatine at a dose of 0.3 g/kg lean body mass/day for 7 days (approximately 20 g/day) followed by 4 weeks at 0.075 g/kg lean body mass/day for 28 days (approximately 5 g/day) experienced no significant change in ICW, ECW, or TBW . Furthermore, resistance-trained males who consumed creatine supplementation (20 g/day for seven days followed by 5 g/day for 21 days) had no significant increase in ICW, ECW, or TBW . Similarly, males and females ingesting creatine (0.03 g/kg/day for six weeks) experienced no significant increase in TBW . Six weeks of creatine supplementation in non-resistance-trained males at a dosage of 0.3 g/kg lean body mass for five days followed by 0.075 g/kg lean body mass for 42 days produced no significant changes in TBW . In contrast, when assessing TBW, ICW, and ECW content before and after 28 days of creatine supplementation in healthy males and females (n = 32), Powers et al.  showed that creatine supplementation was effective at increasing muscle creatine content which was associated with an increase in body mass and TBW but did not alter ICW or ECW volumes. In a recent study examining the effects of creatine supplementation combined with resistance exercise for 8 weeks, Ribeiro et al.  found a significant increase in TBW (7.0%) and ICW (9.2%) volume compared to placebo (TBW: 1.7%; ICW: 1.6%), with both groups similarly increasing ECW (CR: 1.2% vs. Placebo = 0.6%). Importantly, the ratio of skeletal muscle mass to ICW remained similar in both groups. It is important to highlight that the ICW is an important cellular signal for protein synthesis and thus drives an increase in muscle mass over time .
From a clinical perspective, creatine supplementation has been found to potentially offer health benefits with minimal adverse effects in younger populations. Hayashi et al.  found improvements in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and reported no adverse changes in laboratory parameters of hematology, kidney function, liver function or inflammatory markers after 12 weeks of creatine supplementation. Tarnopolsky et al.  reported significant improvements in fat-free mass and hand grip strength in 30 pediatric patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy following 4 months of creatine supplementation. Importantly, the creatine supplementation protocol appeared to be well tolerated and did not adversely affect laboratory markers of kidney function, oxidative stress, and bone health [81,82,83]. In addition, Sakellaris et al.  reported significant improvements in traumatic brain injury-related outcomes in children and adolescents who received oral creatine supplementation (0.4 g/kg/day) for 6 months. These neurological benefits may have potential applications for young athletes participating in collision sports, which pose underlying risks of concussions or sub-concussive impacts. Further, several of these clinical trials implemented strict clinical surveillance measures, including continual monitoring of laboratory markers of kidney health, inflammation, and liver function; none of which were negatively impacted by the respective creatine supplementation interventions. These findings support the hypothesis of creatine supplementation likely being safe for children and adolescents. However, perhaps the strongest supporting evidence for the safety of creatine is the recent classification of creatine as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in late 2020 ( ). Ultimately, this classification indicates that the currently available scientific data pertaining to the safety of creatine, is sufficient and has been agreed upon by a consensus of qualified experts, thereby determining creatine to be safe under the conditions of its intended use ( ). Even though infants and young children are excluded from GRAS, this would still apply to older children and adolescent populations.
The theory that creatine supplementation increases fat mass is a concern amongst exercising individuals, possibly because some experience a gain in body mass from creatine supplementation. However, randomized controlled trials (one week to two years in duration) do not validate this claim. Acute creatine supplementation (7 days) had no effect on fat mass in young and older adults; however, fat-free mass was increased [86, 87]. Furthermore, three weeks of creatine supplementation had no effect on body composition in swimmers . The addition of creatine to high-intensity interval training had no effect on body composition in recreationally active females . In addition, the effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training overreaching had no effect on fat mass . Moreover, in a group of healthy recreational male bodybuilders, 5 g/day of creatine consumed either pre- or post-training had no effect on fat mass . In other short-terms studies lasting 6-8 weeks, there were no changes in fat mass from creatine supplementation. Becque et al.  found no changes in fat mass after six weeks of supplementation plus resistance training. In another 6-week investigation, no significant differences in fat mass or percentage body fat were observed after creatine supplementation . Furthermore, creatine supplementation during an 8-week rugby union football season also had no effect on fat mass .
Creatine kinetics may vary between healthy males and females . Females may have higher intramuscular creatine concentrations  possibly due to lower skeletal muscle mass . Potentially, the higher resting intramuscular creatine concentration in females (based on the upper limit of intramuscular creatine storage) may help explain some research showing diminished responsiveness and/or performance effects on females [160, 161].
There is a small body of research that has investigated the effects of creatine supplementation in younger females. For example, Vandenberghe et al.  showed that creatine supplementation (20 g/day for 4 days followed by 5 g/day thereafter) during 10 weeks of resistance training significantly increased intramuscular concentrations, muscle mass and strength compared to placebo in females (19-22 yrs). In elite female soccer players (22 ± 5 yrs), creatine supplementation (20 g/day for 6 days) improved sprint and agility performance compared to placebo . Hamilton et al.  showed that creatine supplementation (25 g for 7 days) augmented upper-body exercise capacity in strength-trained females (21-33 yrs) compared to placebo (19-29 yrs). Furthermore, in college-aged females (20 yrs), creatine supplementation (0.5 g/kg of fat-free mass for 5 days) improved knee extension muscle performance compared to placebo . In contrast, not all data show improved performance in females [89, 160, 161]. Additionally, Smith-Ryan et al.  reported no significant effects of creatine loading on neuromuscular properties of fatigue in young adult females. It is important to evaluate the benefit to risk ratio; as noted elsewhere in this document, there are minimal risks associated with creatine supplementation, particularly when it is evaluated against the potential benefits in females.
Accumulating research over the past decade in postmenopausal females demonstrates that creatine supplementation during a resistance training program can improve muscle mass, upper- and lower-body strength, and tasks of functionality (30-s chair stand, lying prone-to-stand test, arm curl test) (for detailed review see Candow et al. ). Creatine supplementation appears to be a viable option for post-menopausal females to improve muscle quality and performance. In addition to its beneficial effects on aging muscle, creatine supplementation may also have favorable effects on bone in postmenopausal females, if combined with resistance training. For example, postmenopausal females who supplemented daily with 0.1 g/kg/day of creatine during 52-weeks of supervised whole-body resistance training experienced an attenuation in the rate of bone mineral loss at the femoral neck (hip), compared to females on placebo during training . Furthermore, 5 g/day of creatine supplementation during 12 weeks of resistance training in postmenopausal females resulted in a significant increase in muscle mass and upper- and lower-body strength, compared to placebo . However, even without the stimulus of resistance training, there is some evidence that creatine supplementation can still be beneficial. For example, in aging females (n=10; 67 ± 6 yrs), acute creatine supplementation (0.3 g/kg/day for 7 days) significantly improved lower-extremity physical performance (sit-to-stand test) , and fat-free mass and upper- and lower-body strength compared to placebo .
A linear mechanism of sharp frequency selectivity in the inner ear is developed. The cochlea is assumed to be a slightly varying wave guide with inhomogeneous cross section. The tectorial membrane is considered as an additional mass loading the narrow strip of the basilar membrane that underlies the rows of outer hair cells. A high concentration of mass along the middle line of the cochlea partition provides the sharpening of the tuning curve without significantly altering the phase. The dissipation of energy is assumed to hold in fluid boundary layers near the cochlea partition. The responses of the model with one and the same set of input parameters are compared with different experimental data obtained during the last decade, in the basal and apical parts of the cochlea. This paper demonstrates that a system such as cochlea is capable of performing sharply tuned linear frequency analysis without adding any outside energy to the input waveform to be analyzed. 2b1af7f3a8