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Really, an immunohistochemistry analysis recently performed in lung tissues from healthy and COPD patients detects OCTN2 on the apical and lateral side of the epithelial cells in the bronchial region and in cells lining the bronchioles ; similarly, the transporter has been shown on the apical surface of ALI Calu-3 layers . In our hands, conversely, the immunocytochemical images indicate a prevalent expression of the transporter on the lateral plasma membrane, data completely consistent with results of transport experiments. Although we do not feel able to exclude an also apical expression of OCTN2 on the basis of immunocytochemistry, the functional analysis seems to limit the activity of the transporter to the basolateral side of both cell models.
Over 1,000 artists and technicians were used in the making of Fantasia, which features more than 500 animated characters. Segments were color-keyed scene by scene so the colors in a single shot would harmonize between preceding and following ones. Before a segment's narrative pattern was complete, an overall color scheme was designed to the general mood of the music, and patterned to correspond with the development of the subject matter The studio's character model department would also sculpt three-dimensional clay models so the animators could view their subject from all angles. The live action scenes were filmed using the three-strip Technicolor process, while the animated segments were shot in successive yellow, cyan and magenta-exposed frames. The different pieces of film were then spliced together to form a complete print. A multiplane camera that could handle seven levels, three more than the old multiplane camera, was built.
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There is growing evidence of a role of NOX isoforms in brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders, particularly for NOX1, 2, and 4. NOX activation can be increased by a variety of inflammatory and neurodegenerative factors, such as amyloid precursor protein (APP), amyloid β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), interleukins, and α-synucleins, as well as neuronal damage and cell death [75, 80, 127, 128]. Evidence supporting a role of NOX activation in the pathology of ischemic and traumatic brain injury, as well as several major neurodegenerative disorders is discussed in detail below. Table 2 summarizes animal studies showing effects of genetic deletion or knockdown of NOX in the following disease models.
An increase in NOX activation has also been reported in studies utilizing hemorrhagic models. Enhanced immunoreactivity to gp91phox associated with neuronal injury and increased gp91phox mRNA expression was reported in the rat cortex at 24 h after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) [142, 143]. Another study reported an elevation of superoxide beginning as early as 12 h after SAH . Elevated NOX activity and superoxide production were associated with increased membrane translocation of the p47phox subunit  and increased membrane translocation of a NOX activator Rac  at 24 h after SAH. The activation of NOX in SAH appears to be short lived as one study found NOX activity return to baseline by 48 h after SAH, with no changes in expression of gp91phox or p22phox throughout the experiment . A similar acute NOX activation pattern was seen in hemorrhagic stroke where NOX2 protein levels were shown to be increased in the striatum at 12 h, and peaking at 24 h after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) . Gp91phox was primarily expressed in activated microglia and colocalized with peroxynitrite at 24 h after ICH in the injured hemisphere . Human data for NOX activation in hemorrhagic stroke models are scarce, but a study of the Chinese Han population resulted in the identification of a p22phox polymorphism associated with increased NOX activation and susceptibility to ICH . While clearly more studies using different injury models are needed to solidify the evidence for NOX involvement in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic stroke, the current findings suggests that NOX activation is involved in the acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke, as opposed to a more prolonged involvement in ischemic stroke.
The evidence of NOX inhibition in hemorrhagic stroke is more limited. A study of SAH using diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) to inhibit NOX ameliorated the decreased MCA luminal diameter seen after SAH , indicating a potential for NOX inhibition to reduce cerebral vasospasms that may complicate SAH. In studies investigating hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke, NOX inhibition via VAS2870 was able to reduce infarct volume and attenuate NOX2 and NOX4 expression in rats, which correlated with better outcome and reduced hemorrhagic transformation after reperfusion in acute ischemic stroke . Another study found that apocynin treatment at high doses did not improve outcome in a collagenase model of rat ICH , although the narrow neuroprotective dose range of apocynin may account for the lack of neuroprotection seen at high doses . Modulation of NOX expression or activity has also been implicated in the protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen in SAH [142, 143], Rac inhibition in SAH , adiponectin paralog in ICH , and Brilliant Blue G in ICH . As these treatments are not specific in targeting NOX, the value of NOX as a therapeutic target in hemorrhagic stroke remains to be validated with more studies utilizing NOX-specific inhibitors. A few knockout studies have been done in investigating the role of NOX enzymes in hemorrhagic stroke. Gp91phox KO mice show decreased oxidative products, reduced brain edema, smaller hematoma size, decreased neurological deficits, and decreased mortality as opposed to wild type mice after collagenase induced ICH . However, an endovascular perforation model of SAH with gp91phox KO mice showed no difference in the cerebral blood flow, brain edema, intensity of oxidative stress, or mortality between WT and KO mice . It is uncertain whether different disease models or the acute window of NOX activation in hemorrhagic stoke may account for the variability in reported data. These preliminary studies with NOX KO mice in hemorrhagic stroke require further validation.
Despite the recent exploration of the role of NOX enzymes in the pathogenesis of HD, there is evidence supporting that inhibition of NOX may be beneficial. In a rat intrastriatal quinolinic acid injection model of HD, both pre- and post-lesion apocynin treatment decreased superoxide levels and attenuated behavioral alterations seen in untreated, lesioned animals . Furthermore, both apocynin and DPI were able to suppress superoxide generation after striatal lesion in the presence of NOX substrate, NADH . This supports that NOX is actively participating in the pathology of this model of HD. Apocynin and DPI treatment of primary cortical and striatal neurons derived from HD140Q/140Q transgenic mice reduced NOX enzyme activity to the levels of WT neurons , as well as reduced ROS generation, increased viability, and improved morphology of the neurons . These HD140Q/140Q derived neurons also showed increased neuronal viability when treated either with a superoxide quencher, EUK189, or a more selective NOX inhibitor, VAS2870 . Though VAS2870 has been reported as a selective NOX2 inhibitor, other studies have revealed its effect on other NOX isoforms and cannot be used to implicate NOX2 as the key NOX isoform in HD pathology. However, NOX2 involvement can be studied using gp91ds-tat, a more selective inhibitor of NOX2 . In the PC12 cell line, treatment with gp91ds-tat reduced ROS levels, dissolved nuclear aggregates induced by expanded polyglutamine peptides, and prevented the formation of new aggregates , suggesting that NOX inhibition may be beneficial. Though investigations on the role of NOX2 in HD is a recent endeavor, results so far seem to suggest a key role of NOX2 involvement in HD pathology. In support of this possibility, cortical neurons derived from NOX2-deleted HD140Q/140Q mice showed reduced NOX activity and increased cell survival as compared to NOX2-WT HD140Q/140Q mice . These results suggest that NOX2 inhibition can be neuroprotective, and that further studies utilizing NOX2 KO mice in HD models are needed to further confirm the role of NOX2, as well as the potential benefits of NOX inhibition on behavioral parameters, cognitive health, and disease outcome. In addition, additional studies testing the role of other NOX isoforms in HD pathology are also needed.
The use of EAE animal models in conjunction with NOX inhibition techniques show a more causative role of NOX that may be contributing to MS pathology. In EAE in vitro studies, NOX inhibition with apocynin was able to reduce BBB permeability seen in EAE [301, 306]. Early studies have shown that blocking NOX via apocynin or DPI reduces ROS formation and prevents phagocytosis of myelin . Similar results were obtained by either blocking NOX assembly or by deletion of p47phox, where ROS production and neuroinflammation were both attenuated in a model of isolated myelin and primary microglial culture . Studies of the p47phox subunit report a complex function. Mice with p47phox deletion develop decreased EAE, showing no obvious signs of EAE as compared to WT mice who developed modest of severe disease after EAE induction . However, mutant mice with truncated or nonfunctional p47phox proteins showed enhanced disease progression after EAE induction , indicating that the oxidative burst of NOX enzymes may serve a beneficial role in modulating disease progression. Nonetheless, more studies have reported benefits of NOX inhibition. Isolated microglia from NOX2 KO mice showed reduced toxicity to oligodendrocytes . Inhibition with DPI also prevented activated microglia from killing oligodendrocytes . In vivo, NOX2 deletion in mouse models of EAE prevented the weight loss, attenuated oligodendrocyte loss, and reduced microglia reactivity that were all observed in WT EAE mice . Deletion of NOX2 also improved neurological outcome in EAE mice , showing that these NOX2 KO mice are more resistant to EAE. Mice treated with apocynin to inhibit NOX also showed reduced clinical symptoms of EAE, reduced demyelination, and reduced infiltration of immune cells . It has also been shown that apocynin can reduce synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region during a remission phase of EAE . The evidence based on genetic studies of NOX deletion and inhibition demonstrates that modulation of NOX can therapeutically inhibit some clinical features and neuropathological changes associated with EAE, and ultimately MS. 2b1af7f3a8